Developed from time-and-motion studies by Frederick W. Taylor (19th century Industrial Engineer)
* People have a natural aversion to work.
* People need to be coerced to achieve goals.
* Average person prefers to be directed, wishes to avoid responsibility, has little ambition, and wants security most.
Developed from experiments at the Western Electric Hawthorne Works in Chicago (1930's). Management giving special attention to people resulted in improved performance.
* People will achieve goals they deem important.
* Commitment/reward relationship.
* People accept and seek responsibility.
* People can use imagination and creativity.
* More brain power is used.
Developed by William Ouchi (UCLA) based on study of Japanese businesses during the 1970's. Observed higher productivity because Japanese society encourages mutual trust and cooperation.
* Employees need freedom to grow.
* Group decision making.
* Subordinates are whole people.
* Management is concerned with welfare of subordinates.
* Open communications.
* Complete trust.
* Cooperation vs. competition.
Copyright © 2014 by Tim Bryce. All rights reserved.